We have many potential resources in the Inner Solar System. This page will list them based on mass and material components.
The Earth is the largest planet in the Inner Solar System. The origins of life began here several billion years ago unless it came from outside.
The moon dust probably contains Helium-3. There is water ice in some craters on the Moon.
There is frozen water on Mars, and the CO2 in the atmosphere and dry ice can be used for photosynthesis. The lower gravity of mars makes the layering less profound than on Earth, so Mars has more metallic ores near the surface than could be expected from its low metal content.
Right now, Venus essentially has no known resources as any probe that we put down there melts within a few seconds.To even get access to the planet's resources would require at least partially terraforming the planet.
Mercury is predicted to have large amounts of Helium-3. It is also thought to contain a crust rich in iron and magnesium silicates. Some craters on Mercury contains water ice.
There is estimated to be enough material in the main asteroid belt alone to build enough space habitats to equal the habitable surface area of 3,000 Earths. The outer asteroids contain water ice. The inner asteroids are rich in metallic ores like nikel and iron. See hollow asteroid/comet colonies and artificial gravity colonies.