Each of the Space Colonies should have EEI, the Emergency Evacuation Infrastructure.
This basically is an underground bunker and tunnelnetwork,which has exits on several locations on the moon or planet. This way,the colonists have a better flee-survival chance. Inside these bunkers and tunnels there is an extra fleet of Escape Vehicles,but the regular fleet of Space Vehicles is also based underground.
Besides this,there must be agreement on how to maintain public safety and governance, before we set off to space.
We should prepare our colonies for what might happen if a war occurs on Earth. We must take under consideration that both sides in the war can try to 'take ownership' of our space colonies.
Who will be 'the boss' in the colonies? Will the colonies be UN Mandate-Territories? Or will they become fully independent? Maybe the colonies will together form some sort of Federation, possibly even having 'States' on Earth? Another possibility is seeking 'unity' with a country on Earth,but UN-resolutions that forbid territorial claims in space,might be a problem then.
We also need to think about public safety. Will we have only a Police Department,or also have an Army?
These are essential parts in succesfully colonizing space,since we a) don't know how the politics and possible wars on Earth will develop, b) don't know if other -intelligent- life forms are friendly, neutral or if they want war, and c) we do know that without at least Police,we cannot maintain public safety.
Then we also need to have a Constitution, or at least some laws. How will these be implemented, what powers does the Colonial Government get,and will there also be lower governments like a county,municipality,province or state?
Will we get a professional Fire Department,from the beginning, or in a later stadium? We also have to make 'disaster-plans' and all kinds of procedures,to make sure everything in the Colonies will go the way it should,in a democratic, orderly and eficient way.
All of this is part of the Emergency Preparedness Plan. Also check; Colonial Government